Microsoft word 2016 basics unit 2 answers free –
Dusenbery called these causal inputs. Other inputs information are important only because they are associated with causal inputs and can be used to predict the occurrence of a causal input at a later time and perhaps another place. Some information is important because of association with other information but eventually there must be a connection to a causal input.
In practice, information is usually carried by weak stimuli that must be detected by specialized sensory systems and amplified by energy inputs before they can be functional to the organism or system. For example, light is mainly but not only, e. The colored light reflected from a flower is too weak for photosynthesis but the visual system of the bee detects it and the bee’s nervous system uses the information to guide the bee to the flower, where the bee often finds nectar or pollen, which are causal inputs, serving a nutritional function.
The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense. These are, any dimensionally defined category of objects S, and any of its subsets R. R, in essence, is a representation of S, or, in other words, conveys representational and hence, conceptual information about S.
Vigo then defines the amount of information that R conveys about S as the rate of change in the complexity of S whenever the objects in R are removed from S. Under “Vigo information”, pattern, invariance, complexity, representation, and information—five fundamental constructs of universal science—are unified under a novel mathematical framework. Information is any type of pattern that influences the formation or transformation of other patterns.
Consider, for example, DNA. The sequence of nucleotides is a pattern that influences the formation and development of an organism without any need for a conscious mind. One might argue though that for a human to consciously define a pattern, for example a nucleotide, naturally involves conscious information processing. Systems theory at times seems to refer to information in this sense, assuming information does not necessarily involve any conscious mind, and patterns circulating due to feedback in the system can be called information.
In other words, it can be said that information in this sense is something potentially perceived as representation, though not created or presented for that purpose. For example, Gregory Bateson defines “information” as a “difference that makes a difference”. If, however, the premise of “influence” implies that information has been perceived by a conscious mind and also interpreted by it, the specific context associated with this interpretation may cause the transformation of the information into knowledge.
Complex definitions of both “information” and “knowledge” make such semantic and logical analysis difficult, but the condition of “transformation” is an important point in the study of information as it relates to knowledge, especially in the business discipline of knowledge management. In this practice, tools and processes are used to assist a knowledge worker in performing research and making decisions, including steps such as:.
Stewart argues that transformation of information into knowledge is critical, lying at the core of value creation and competitive advantage for the modern enterprise. The Danish Dictionary of Information Terms  argues that information only provides an answer to a posed question. Whether the answer provides knowledge depends on the informed person. When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets.
Also, pheromones are often said to be “information” in this sense. These sections are using measurements of data rather than information, as information cannot be directly measured. It is estimated that the world’s technological capacity to store information grew from 2. The world’s combined technological capacity to receive information through one-way broadcast networks was the informational equivalent of newspapers per person per day in The world’s combined effective capacity to exchange information through two-way telecommunication networks was the informational equivalent of 6 newspapers per person per day in The total amount of data created, captured, copied, and consumed globally is forecast to increase rapidly, reaching Over the next five years up to , global data creation is projected to grow to more than zettabytes.
Records are specialized forms of information. Essentially, records are information produced consciously or as by-products of business activities or transactions and retained because of their value. Primarily, their value is as evidence of the activities of the organization but they may also be retained for their informational value. Sound records management  ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.
The international standard on records management, ISO , defines records as “information created, received, and maintained as evidence and information by an organization or person, in pursuance of legal obligations or in the transaction of business”. Records may be maintained to retain corporate memory of the organization or to meet legal, fiscal or accountability requirements imposed on the organization.
Willis expressed the view that sound management of business records and information delivered ” Michael Buckland has classified “information” in terms of its uses: “information as process”, “information as knowledge”, and “information as thing”. Beynon-Davies   explains the multi-faceted concept of information in terms of signs and signal-sign systems. Signs themselves can be considered in terms of four inter-dependent levels, layers or branches of semiotics : pragmatics, semantics, syntax, and empirics.
These four layers serve to connect the social world on the one hand with the physical or technical world on the other. Pragmatics is concerned with the purpose of communication. Pragmatics links the issue of signs with the context within which signs are used.
The focus of pragmatics is on the intentions of living agents underlying communicative behaviour. In other words, pragmatics link language to action. Semantics is concerned with the meaning of a message conveyed in a communicative act.
Semantics considers the content of communication. Semantics is the study of the meaning of signs – the association between signs and behaviour. Semantics can be considered as the study of the link between symbols and their referents or concepts — particularly the way that signs relate to human behavior. Syntax is concerned with the formalism used to represent a message. Syntax as an area studies the form of communication in terms of the logic and grammar of sign systems.
Syntax is devoted to the study of the form rather than the content of signs and sign-systems. Nielsen discusses the relationship between semiotics and information in relation to dictionaries. He introduces the concept of lexicographic information costs and refers to the effort a user of a dictionary must make to first find, and then understand data so that they can generate information. Communication normally exists within the context of some social situation.
The social situation sets the context for the intentions conveyed pragmatics and the form of communication. In a communicative situation intentions are expressed through messages that comprise collections of inter-related signs taken from a language mutually understood by the agents involved in the communication. Mutual understanding implies that agents involved understand the chosen language in terms of its agreed syntax syntactics and semantics.
The sender codes the message in the language and sends the message as signals along some communication channel empirics. The chosen communication channel has inherent properties that determine outcomes such as the speed at which communication can take place, and over what distance. The information cycle addressed as a whole or in its distinct components is of great concern to information technology , information systems , as well as information science.
Information visualization shortened as InfoVis depends on the computation and digital representation of data, and assists users in pattern recognition and anomaly detection. Information security shortened as InfoSec is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and repair.
The shared commonality of the kernel is what defines a system’s membership in the Linux family; the differing OSS applications that can interact with the common kernel are what differentiate Linux distributions.
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I agree. I assume this is going to be no problem for anybody: If you have grievances “I wrote that code assuming the copyright would stay the same” mail me. Archived from the original on February 28, Archived from the original on October 8, Retrieved August 3, Archived from the original on March 29, Retrieved July 26, Ziff Davis Enterprise Inc. Archived from the original on July 9, Retrieved November 19, Ars Technica. Ars Technica, LLC. Archived from the original on November 16, Archived from the original on December 3, Market Share.
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Archived from the original on October 16, Linux Journal. Archived from the original on April 4, Archived from the original on October 10, Obviously not. To begin with, college is spelled with an e, not an a, as you spelled it collage. That is an entirely different word that means a piece of art made by attaching pieces of paper, often from articles or magazines, to another sheet of paper.
Next, anonymous, such as in your username, is actually spelled a-n-o-n-y-m-o-u-s, rather than anoymos. I also do not understand how spell check did not catch that, as while collage is a real word in the English language, anoymos is not.
I had to change it back. You lack beginning-of-sentence capitalization and no period appears at the end. Also, best in the country by what standard? You should realize that, as I was 12 on March 8, , I clearly have better spelling and grammar than you do, and therefore would be ahead of you according to whatever flawed ranking system you are using. Even if I am not first, you could never be, because I am ahead of you.
I would then be. You should also realize that these kinds of rankings have ties of several hundred or thousand people. If you get a perfect score on a standardized test of some sort, you do not receive precedence in the ranking over all others with the same score. If that were true, I would be 1st in Michigan as far as 7th-grade ELA scores go, ahead of every single 7th grader in the state! There are quite clearly ties. How else would they establish first, second, and so on?
I must say, I detest nothing more than liars and tellers of untruths who brag about fake, easy to earn, and redundant accomplishments, or have overinflated egos but nothing to be proud of. How many of you can claim a 35 on ACT writing before 8th grade?
How many can even claim that as juniors or seniors in high school? Have you gone against any other 12 year-olds outside of your city? I think not. And if you HAVE, actually, used some sort of system that measured you against all those other 12 year-olds, please inform me, for I will gladly supply you with an apology. And those of you who are literally picking apart the entire sentence and username need to calm down lol. They may be at the top of their class or be ONE OF THE top students in their country for other reasons aside from their English skills, especially if that is not one of their core classes.
Please find something better to do with your time. I was actually the most intellgent pre-peubescent in the country.
I boast prior Intelligence Quotients of and at the ages of 11 and 12, respectively. Now completing my senior research at the age of 16, I am have undertaken immunooncology, the study of curing cancer through means of developing an immunity treatment that causes the T-Cells to fight off any cancerous cells. I truly feel that our youth is spiraling into inadequacy. Some men achieve mediocrity, and others have mediocrity thrust upon them.
Thank you for proving your superiority. I will now get down on my knees and worship you. Exactly what I needed today. Also, maybe our youth just has other priorities. Like fun. You could be expanding your mind right now-or better yet, exploring the meaning of life.
I bid you farewell and adieu, Mr. I feel as if some of these answers have employed the usage of thesauruses to make you sound smarter. Also, Anonymous who commented on January 3, , you need to calm down too.
Your post was simply stating how amazing you are at everything, and you need to realize that no matter how good you think you are, you are not the best. Everyone, please calm down and stop boasting. I believe you lads are getting baited. I believe even a year-old could understand what the mysterious red line located under the mistakes would mean.
And with so many mistakes within a single sentence, I doubt this could be a simple form of ironic stupidity. I agree. That merits a College Graduate level. What browser are you using?
Probably, the reading level i. If you can not realize that it is super basic, then you should just get off this website, and stop trolling the Admin and let him do his job for the people who actually are having concerning problems. Serious authors use this website as well. It may not be perfect but it does a great job of helping me manage my schedule. Maybe the system was slow because you had just deleted a lot of writing?
I also agree with you… when i just wrote 2 paragraphs, it said that it was an 11th grade to 12th grade reading level…. I have noticed i have had the same issue with some of my reports and presentations i was doing for a stu. That means that I tan leather and give it to the tailor and the tailor make shoes out of it or anything else made out of leather. I can write that too.
I like cheese. Oh yeah? I copyed text from a book i read and it said College Student. I am in grade nine and am writing a story on a shady dude in Colombia. I happen to be twelve and knowledgeable enough to understand the word cannabis as well as a few others. Clearly the reading level system is glitchy. I think it was designed for other things than people intentionally trying to make it glitch. What I think it should do is ask for your grade level, then record the words you use, then if your grade level using a certain word enough it will add to the list, that way its like a self updating survey.
This way it will truly every year know how smart, or stupid 4th graders — college people are. I just typed 50 words and it said it was th grade: First of all, its like stale bread with only 11 other players to my 40 here except for a few totally fortunate people who typed in a bunch of random numbers.
This is 50 words. Select several word samples throughout the text. Compute the average sentence length in words divide the number of words by the number of sentences. Raw score — Final score 4. Congratulations on developing such a unique tool. Enough is enough. I am a compelled reader and have to read anything to the very end.
Have a wonderful holiday. Unless if this is counting people of which is below their reading level, it really needs to be fixed. Because I enjoyed reading, and would read a lot for pleasure outside of school. Furthermore, students are regularly forced to encounter and learn new words and concepts as they go through a school year, with the aim of expanding their vocabulary. Indeed, even adults still continually learn new words as a reader, too.
Reading Level should be considered not as the actual average reading capabilities at that grade which will change over the course of the year anyway, and might change from year to year and also would be really hard to calculate, in comparison , so much as the MINIMUM education a person should be expected to ALREADY have, in order to understand a passage.
Just to provide an example, in fact, take the above text; the word variety is just enough that it says the Reading Level is 9thth Grade. But yes, the average middle schooler which depending on your area, is either grades , , or 7 and 8 would likely have no problem comprehending it. Hi im Bob. I like susy. Colle Flower delicious.
Type in this and you get college grad status…. I also like pasta. Asparagus is yucky. Fido eats my asparagus. Correct, because you used many of the words not on the word list. I also like noodles. Corn is bad. My dog eats my corn.
Would it be really accurate if you had words? Also, how would you write stuff about DNA that is 5th or 6th grade level instead of college grad? The more words used, the more accurate the reading level will be in most cases. For technical writing like on DNA the way to do it is to define the terms which are above their vocabulary in terms that are easy to understand. Then you would want to do a readability check with the DNA terms you defined absent since the reader should now understand the meaning of them.
I think that this should also take into account how short your sentences are, along with illogical words, and if you have strong diction or not. He did not like me. I frwag seld. Those should bring down the points quite some, and using wrong words should also count. In theory, this is a great idea, but almost impossible to program. I do not get the explanation. If you say that someone who reads what you wrote has to read at a college level, would that not automatically indicate that the writer is writing at a college level as well?
It tells you the words you use are at a college level, but nothing about the writing itself. For example,. He hated the coursework, but he wanted to be a doctor. He hate coursework, but want to doctor. It said my reading level was 9thth grade when actually it was pretty basic and was just describing a basic item.
Can anyone explain? The articles explains how the reading level is calculated. Typing one sentence and basing your judgment of the programming on that is foolish on your part. It says right in the explanation that the longer the written work, the more accurate it will be. That is because it needs a larger sample environment. How did my story go from 11th grade grade to 9thth grade? I did not change anything, yet the reading appeared differently than it had before?
We have started to add more common words to the list mostly conjunctions, plurals and different tenses of the words already on the list to try and make it more accurate. This may have changed the reading level. This happened to my friend too. Why is this happening? I love this site. I am doing a project for National History Day and I need it to be words or more. Thank you for creating an awesome site.
Me too! I really do love this feature, but I only find it useful when writing non-fiction for school essays. I understand how hard to it to program for these kinds of things, but I do find it frustrating sometimes.
Mere praise is substanceless and says nothing. On the other hand, constructive critcism gives way to perpetual improvement. And it may feel bad to be critcised, but it is helpful if you understand what you should be doing to remedy the issue. If all humans seek validation, affirmation and understanding, constructive criticism is the purest form of that. Ironically, pure praise is hardly anything like that.
Usually, the best kind of constructive criticism is also peppered with positivity AND praise. This is what Nerdy-Kat has done. If I was being aggressive, it would be lined with far more colourful language. This website is wonderful, thank you. The Author explains it clearly in the original post. Also, before commenting, one should read through the other comments to avoid being redundant.
I saw the same question asked 6 different times by 6 different people. A question that is clearly explained in the beginning anyhow. I mean…you all know how to read, correct? After a small research, I discovered that the reason for this was that I was writing in Finnish therefore every word was outside the 3 words of a fourth grader. Other than using a foreign language, I think this website in genius and I plan to use it when actually writing something in English!
I have been searching in google for an online word counting tool. I ended up at your site. Later on, I have visited the others. This is by far the best word count tool out there. Thank you! I literally wrote the title and it said college student. I love the website though. It is almost impossible to make a really good reading level thingy. Pasted my essay, and it gave me college graduate.
You might want to read the article. I can see the potential, but at its current state it will only manage to befuddle a user if anything. Having multiple dictionaries one for each level would work much better. I like apple. I hate bee. I love girl. I hate bees. I love girls.
I popped in to see if there was a rating above College Level, and was surprised at some of the criticism people type. After using this website for two years, about times, I can say that it does work. Dear Word Counter. Everyone is just mad that they received a low level lol. Seriously people just stop complaining. If you are just going to keep complaining please stop. If you hate it that much either stop using the website or just make your own if your that smart because hey everyone is write.
Keep up the great work! Hi there. Here to voice my appraisal for this website despite what all you negative people above are saying. This has helped me structuralise and manage the content of the book I am currently in progress of writing.
Keep up the good work, site admins! I believe you need to rethink your reading level. As a writer, it kind of makes me feel small.
Is this even a reliable metric to use? This is not a random or arbitrary score given by this website. It is a scale invented by Dale and Chall in and updated 50 years later. I know that, for myself, I was reading on a high school level by kindergarten, but my little brother who is in middle school struggles to read on-grade-level books.
Meanwhile, he was helping me with my high school math homework when he was not even in school yet. This scale in no way suggests that you the reader could not read more than 3, basic words by fourth grade or that you the writer are not able to write to your target audience. Then again, if you are one of those who thinks the system is broken because you typed in so much nonsense and were told that you must be a college graduate clearly lack the ability to read this article which is on an 11thth grade level.
To write at a 4th grade level, your words need to on average be shorter than 4 letters, while to write on a college graduate level, they only need to be on average about 5 letters long. Better to stick with how you can write comfortably and leave the administrator of this site be.
Note, I write most comfortably between a 9th and 12th grade level. Thank you Linguist! You nailed it! To the young folks, in the future, consider taking time to read through previous comments before repeating and arguing about an issue that has already been addressed. That is so true, its actually so annoying that people are so stupid today. Just get a life and stop ruining other peoples including the admins who have just created this website for people who are going to use it and find it useful, not for people who just complain about it the whole time.
We are working on plurals. This is a cool tool! I can see this reversed as an added tool for HR departments. I like roses. Roses are red. Red roses have thorns. Roses can be pink. Pink roses are pretty. I like pink roses. Red, roses, thorn, and like are all words used in dr Seuss books. I see absolutely no reason this qualifies as high school intellect requirements. As all I have to say is green eggs and ham would likely generate a higher level when only two random versus of… I would not like them here or there.
I would not like them anywhere. I do not like green eggs and ham. I do not like them, Sam-I-am Rates as th grade. We will have an update for the plural issue soon. If you guys read the previous comments before asking questions to the admin and complaining about the reading system, it would save the admin a lot of time. Love this tool. I love how all these keyboard warrior kids think using big words and sophisticated paragraphing techniques gives them the status of a college graduate, when in reality, in higher education, you get awarded more marks and get given better results for writing in a more simple fashion so anyone who reads it will have a better understanding, in other words getting your point across to everyone.
This records the reading level of your book report, not your writing level. This does not matter in your case, as your teacher or instructor should already be finished with high school.
Keeping a reliable word and page count has made my life so much easier. I was nothing short of thrilled when I discovered the auto-save function — much more reliable than Word for my scatterbrained self. Not to mention the keyword density, arguably my favourite of the available features. Thank you for this article, for your endless patience, and for this tool!
Does this tool work with foreign languages? I wrote a long text in French and this said this was college graduate level so i assume this is not working with french, does someone knows were i could actually find such a useful tool for other languages than English. My writing level is much higher than 7th grade! This tool sucks. This is a disgrace! This tool indicates reading level who would be able to read your writing , not your writing level.
This is a tool that gives you an estimate on what level student would be able to understand your writing. Of course, you can manipulate it to come up with unrealistic reading levels. Maybe if all of you spent more time trying to improve your writing rather than trying to find ways to manipulate the formula you would be doing better in school. I typed in an obviously stupid sentence with an okay one as well , and the result was college graduate.
That was college graduate. That happened. I am in fourth grade. My reading level is 10thth grade??? I think something might be a little bit wrong. When will this feature be corrected? Granted, I am a college graduate, but this is pure gibberish. There is nothing to correct. I wrote this : dark souls.
It will explain why this is the case. What does that prove? It proves that the algorithm is only set to tell you that you are using bigger words than a 4th grader would understand in the sequence you are using them. Honestly, all of you trying this kind of stuff have already been told what the program will and will not do so why are you playing childish games trying to mess with the program.
That you are doing this at all only shows your mental age — a child playing a meaningless game to try to prove something that has already been proven and stated as such. This is an interesting tool. That would be great and would help a lot to improve my writing. So they do not know how the tool works. If they read the page all the way through they would not post silly things. There we go. To continue a trend, pop that in the box. Hopefully that means the people posting ridiculous questions realise they look quite ‘silly’.
This reading level tool is an excellent idea but I think it needs some fine-tuning. It distinguishes only between two kinds of words: 4th-grader words and not 4th-grader words. That means that if you use enough words a fifth-grader ought to know, it will still rate it as college-level reading, not fifth-grade reading.
Word counter is really useful though, especially for the school essays and project. I just wish I actually understood what the grades mean. Fourth grade is primary school 4th year. Junior High school is usually years 7 and 8 and high school is years 9 through Dear admin, have you considered using the reading level to augment the reading speed i.
Microsoft word 2016 basics unit 2 answers free –
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All our writers are graduates and professors from the most prestigious universities and colleges in the world. We have writers who are native speakers and non-native speakers. Later, Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention ” Freax “, a portmanteau of “free”, “freak”, and “x” as an allusion to Unix. During the start of his work on the system, some of the project’s makefiles included the name “Freax” for about half a year.
Initially, Torvalds considered the name “Linux” but dismissed it as too egotistical. To facilitate development, the files were uploaded to the FTP server ftp. Ari Lemmke, Torvalds’ coworker at the Helsinki University of Technology HUT who was one of the volunteer administrators for the FTP server at the time, did not think that “Freax” was a good name, so he named the project “Linux” on the server without consulting Torvalds.
Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mids in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux.
Commercial use began when Dell and IBM , followed by Hewlett-Packard , started offering Linux support to escape Microsoft ‘s monopoly in the desktop operating system market. Today, Linux systems are used throughout computing, from embedded systems to virtually all supercomputers ,   and have secured a place in server installations such as the popular LAMP application stack.
Use of Linux distributions in home and enterprise desktops has been growing. Linux’s greatest success in the consumer market is perhaps the mobile device market, with Android being the dominant operating system on smartphones and very popular on tablets and, more recently, on wearables. Linux gaming is also on the rise with Valve showing its support for Linux and rolling out SteamOS , its own gaming-oriented Linux distribution.
Linux distributions have also gained popularity with various local and national governments, such as the federal government of Brazil. Greg Kroah-Hartman is the lead maintainer for the Linux kernel and guides its development. These third-party components comprise a vast body of work and may include both kernel modules and user applications and libraries.
Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions. Many open source developers agree that the Linux kernel was not designed but rather evolved through natural selection.
Torvalds considers that although the design of Unix served as a scaffolding, “Linux grew with a lot of mutations — and because the mutations were less than random, they were faster and more directed than alpha-particles in DNA. Raymond considers Linux’s revolutionary aspects to be social, not technical: before Linux, complex software was designed carefully by small groups, but “Linux evolved in a completely different way. From nearly the beginning, it was rather casually hacked on by huge numbers of volunteers coordinating only through the Internet.
Quality was maintained not by rigid standards or autocracy but by the naively simple strategy of releasing every week and getting feedback from hundreds of users within days, creating a sort of rapid Darwinian selection on the mutations introduced by developers.
Such a system uses a monolithic kernel , the Linux kernel , which handles process control, networking, access to the peripherals , and file systems.
Device drivers are either integrated directly with the kernel, or added as modules that are loaded while the system is running. The GNU userland is a key part of most systems based on the Linux kernel, with Android being the notable exception.
The Project’s implementation of the C library works as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itself , and the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools. The project also develops Bash , a popular CLI shell. Many other open-source software projects contribute to Linux systems.
Installed components of a Linux system include the following:  . The user interface , also known as the shell , is either a command-line interface CLI , a graphical user interface GUI , or controls attached to the associated hardware, which is common for embedded systems.
For desktop systems, the default user interface is usually graphical, although the CLI is commonly available through terminal emulator windows or on a separate virtual console. CLI shells are text-based user interfaces, which use text for both input and output.
Most low-level Linux components, including various parts of the userland , use the CLI exclusively. The CLI is particularly suited for automation of repetitive or delayed tasks and provides very simple inter-process communication.
Most popular user interfaces are based on the X Window System , often simply called “X”. It provides network transparency and permits a graphical application running on one system to be displayed on another where a user may interact with the application; however, certain extensions of the X Window System are not capable of working over the network.
Org Server , being the most popular. Server distributions might provide a command-line interface for developers and administrators, but provide a custom interface towards end-users, designed for the use-case of the system.
This custom interface is accessed through a client that resides on another system, not necessarily Linux based. Several types of window managers exist for X11, including tiling , dynamic , stacking and compositing. Window managers provide means to control the placement and appearance of individual application windows, and interact with the X Window System.
Simpler X window managers such as dwm , ratpoison , i3wm , or herbstluftwm provide a minimalist functionality, while more elaborate window managers such as FVWM , Enlightenment or Window Maker provide more features such as a built-in taskbar and themes , but are still lightweight when compared to desktop environments.
Wayland is a display server protocol intended as a replacement for the X11 protocol; as of [update] , it has not received wider adoption. Unlike X11, Wayland does not need an external window manager and compositing manager. Therefore, a Wayland compositor takes the role of the display server, window manager and compositing manager.
Enlightenment has already been successfully ported since version Due to the complexity and diversity of different devices, and due to the large number of formats and standards handled by those APIs, this infrastructure needs to evolve to better fit other devices.
Also, a good userspace device library is the key of the success for having userspace applications to be able to work with all formats supported by those devices. The primary difference between Linux and many other popular contemporary operating systems is that the Linux kernel and other components are free and open-source software.
Linux is not the only such operating system, although it is by far the most widely used. Linux-based distributions are intended by developers for interoperability with other operating systems and established computing standards. Free software projects, although developed through collaboration , are often produced independently of each other.
The fact that the software licenses explicitly permit redistribution, however, provides a basis for larger-scale projects that collect the software produced by stand-alone projects and make it available all at once in the form of a Linux distribution.
Many Linux distributions manage a remote collection of system software and application software packages available for download and installation through a network connection. This allows users to adapt the operating system to their specific needs.
Distributions are maintained by individuals, loose-knit teams, volunteer organizations, and commercial entities. A distribution is responsible for the default configuration of the installed Linux kernel, general system security, and more generally integration of the different software packages into a coherent whole. Distributions typically use a package manager such as apt , yum , zypper , pacman or portage to install, remove, and update all of a system’s software from one central location.
A distribution is largely driven by its developer and user communities. Some vendors develop and fund their distributions on a volunteer basis, Debian being a well-known example. In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups LUGs seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.
They hold meetings and provide free demonstrations, training, technical support, and operating system installation to new users. Many Internet communities also provide support to Linux users and developers.
Online forums are another means for support, with notable examples being LinuxQuestions. Linux distributions host mailing lists ; commonly there will be a specific topic such as usage or development for a given list.
There are several technology websites with a Linux focus. Print magazines on Linux often bundle cover disks that carry software or even complete Linux distributions.
Although Linux distributions are generally available without charge, several large corporations sell, support, and contribute to the development of the components of the system and of free software.
The free software licenses , on which the various software packages of a distribution built on the Linux kernel are based, explicitly accommodate and encourage commercialization; the relationship between a Linux distribution as a whole and individual vendors may be seen as symbiotic.
One common business model of commercial suppliers is charging for support, especially for business users. A number of companies also offer a specialized business version of their distribution, which adds proprietary support packages and tools to administer higher numbers of installations or to simplify administrative tasks.
Another business model is to give away the software to sell hardware. As computer hardware standardized throughout the s, it became more difficult for hardware manufacturers to profit from this tactic, as the OS would run on any manufacturer’s computer that shared the same architecture.
Most programming languages support Linux either directly or through third-party community based ports. First released in , the LLVM project provides an alternative cross-platform open-source compiler for many languages. A common feature of Unix-like systems, Linux includes traditional specific-purpose programming languages targeted at scripting , text processing and system configuration and management in general.
Linux distributions support shell scripts , awk , sed and make. Many programs also have an embedded programming language to support configuring or programming themselves. For example, regular expressions are supported in programs like grep and locate , the traditional Unix MTA Sendmail contains its own Turing complete scripting system, and the advanced text editor GNU Emacs is built around a general purpose Lisp interpreter.
Guile Scheme acts as an extension language targeting the GNU system utilities, seeking to make the conventionally small, static , compiled C programs of Unix design rapidly and dynamically extensible via an elegant, functional high-level scripting system; many GNU programs can be compiled with optional Guile bindings to this end.
These projects are based on the GTK and Qt widget toolkits , respectively, which can also be used independently of the larger framework. Both support a wide variety of languages.
The Linux kernel is a widely ported operating system kernel, available for devices ranging from mobile phones to supercomputers; it runs on a highly diverse range of computer architectures , including the hand-held ARM -based iPAQ and the IBM mainframes System z9 or System z The kernel also runs on architectures that were only ever intended to use a manufacturer-created operating system, such as Macintosh computers   with both PowerPC and Intel processors , PDAs , video game consoles , portable music players , and mobile phones.
There are several industry associations and hardware conferences devoted to maintaining and improving support for diverse hardware under Linux, such as FreedomHEC. Over time, support for different hardware has improved in Linux, resulting in any off-the-shelf purchase having a “good chance” of being compatible.
In , a new initiative was launched to automatically collect a database of all tested hardware configurations. The GPL requires that anyone who distributes software based on source code under this license must make the originating source code and any modifications available to the recipient under the same terms. Torvalds states that the Linux kernel will not move from version 2 of the GPL to version 3.
A study of Red Hat Linux 7. Slightly over half of all lines of code were licensed under the GPL. The Linux kernel itself was 2. In a later study, the same analysis was performed for Debian version 4. Della Croce, Jr. In , Torvalds and some affected organizations sued him to have the trademark assigned to Torvalds, and, in , the case was settled. Torvalds has stated that he trademarked the name only to prevent someone else from using it.
LMI originally charged a nominal sublicensing fee for use of the Linux name as part of trademarks,  but later changed this in favor of offering a free, perpetual worldwide sublicense. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 9 August This article is about the family of operating systems. For the kernel, see Linux kernel. For other uses, see Linux disambiguation.
Family of Unix-like operating systems. Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux . Main article: History of Linux. Main article: Linux adoption. Each piece is handmade and unique, and cannot be exactly replicated. Slight variation may occur compared to the pictures. Follow me finding. Earrings purchased are strictly non-exchangeable and non-refundable. Artists Premium is an artistic and event agency specializing in artistic production and organization of shows.
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Word Getting Started with Word
April 20, Publisher Cheat Sheet Toolbar customize click on arrow and then check the ones you want a shortcut for File Tab has new, open save, print, and shows recent documents, and has choices. Print prints contents of the Content window 2. Find And Replace opens the Find and Replace dialogue box 3. Cut removes selected content to clipboard requires a selection 4. Introduction to Microsoft Access Introduction A database is a collection of information that’s related. Access allows you to manage your information in one database file.
Within Access there are four. Microsoft Office PowerPoint Navigating the PowerPoint Environment The Ribbon: The ribbon is where you will access a majority of the commands you will use to create and develop your presentation. To open Microsoft Office Publisher:.
With PowerPoint, you can create engaging presentations that can be presented in person, online,. Here s the answer. Email is one of the fastest ways to send promotional.
Accessing Microsoft PowerPoint To access Microsoft PowerPoint from your home computer, you will probably either use the Start menu to select the program or double-click on an icon on the Desktop. To open. There are vertical columns and horizontal rows. A cell is where the. Automate tasks with Visual Basic macros If you’re not familiar with macros, don’t let the term frighten you. A macro is simply a recorded set of keystrokes and instructions that you can use to automate.
Lotus Notes Client Version 8. Working with Tables: How to use tables in OpenOffice. Microsoft Word can be used to create documents, brochures,. Its ease of use has made Word one of the most widely used word processing. The top portion of the window has a new structure. Color coding, highlighting, and the ability maintain multiple. Basic Microsoft Excel The biggest difference between Excel and its predecessors is the new layout. All of the old functions are still there with some new additions , but they are now located.
Contents 1. Introduction 1. Starting Publisher 2. Create a Poster Template 5. Aligning your images and text 7. Apply a background Add text to your poster Add pictures to your poster Add graphs. The window opened.
Then in PowerPoint: A set up the poster size and orientation, B add and. Creating a Poster Presentation using PowerPoint Course Description: This course is designed to assist you in creating eye-catching effective posters for presentation of research findings at scientific. You can use Excel to create and format workbooks a collection of spreadsheets in order to analyze data and.
Quick Start Guide Microsoft Publisher looks different from previous versions, so we created this guide to help you minimize the learning curve. Quick Access Toolbar Add your favorite commands to the. Question: 1 You type a document and you want to insert header from third page. Which of the following technique will you use to accomplish the task? Go to the third page and insert header. Use a. When the Project Gallery opens, view some of the available Word templates by clicking to expand the Groups, and.
Getting Started Before you begin create a folder on your desktop called DreamweaverTraining This is where you will save your pages.
Click image to enlarge it. Then copy the link, paste it into an email using any email program, and send it. When your recipients receive the email from you, they click a button or link to open the document, which opens in Word Online in a web browser rather than in the Word desktop client. At this point, they can view the document but not edit it.
Logged in users will see an Edit Document menu, from which they can choose Edit in Word to open the file in the client version of Word, or Edit in Browser to work in the free web version. But for basic editing, it works fine. When collaborating in Word , you must save the document to see changes made by others highlighted in green and to share your changes with them. When you’re working on a document in Word with other people in real time, each person gets a cursor with their own unique color.
You can see what they do as they do it, including deleting, editing and adding text. They see what you do as well. Be aware that how well real-time collaboration works depends on the strength of your internet connection. The Share pane shows a list of people who have access to the document, with a note underneath their name indicating if they are currently editing the document, and if not, whether they have editing or viewing access. To access Backstage view, click the File tab on the Ribbon.
Click the buttons in the interactive below to learn more about using Backstage view. From the Print pane, you can change the print settings and print your document. You can also see a preview of your document. You can use the arrow to close Backstage view and return to Word. From the Account pane, you can access your Microsoft account information, modify your theme and background, and sign out of your account. Here, you can change various Word options. For example, you can control the spelling and grammar check settings, AutoRecover settings, and language preferences.
The information pane will appear whenever you access Backstage view. It contains information on the current document. You can also inspect the document to remove personal info and protect it to keep others from making further changes. From here, you can create a new blank document , or you can choose from a large selection of templates. Word has a variety of viewing options that change how your document is displayed.
These views can be useful for various tasks, especially if you’re planning to print the document. You can also zoom in and out to make your document easier to read. Switching between different document views is easy. Just locate and select the desired document view command in the bottom-right corner of the Word window.
Under Print , in the Copies box, enter the number of copies that you want to print. If you want to change a setting, click the setting you want to change and then select the setting that you want. For more information about how to print a file, see Preview and print a file.
Save changes Word saves your changes automatically. Share documents online Because your document is online, you can share it by sending a link instead of an email attachment. Comment in the browser A comment balloon shows where comments have been made in the doc. Work together on the same doc To work together in Word for the web, you edit a document as you normally would. Need more help?
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